Propitiation

  • What is Propitiation?
  • Is it equivalent to bribing God?
  • What is Propitiation really means as per the Holy Bible?
    • Why we need to sacrifice?
    • Did God punish Adam and Eve when they had sinned first ?
  • Why God didn't punish or kill Adam and Eve as a sacrifice when they had sinned first ?
  • How God instituted propitiation in Old Testament time?
  • Does this propitiation in Old Testament time takes away their sins?
    • How frequent this propitiation in Old Testament time repeated?
  • Why God instituted propitiation in Old Testament time?
    • Who is that perfect propitiation?
    • How frequent this this perfect propitiation repeated?
    • Does God prepared this perfect propitiation before the foundation of this world?
    • When God first revealed this perfect propitiation to humanity?
    • Who provided this perfect propitiation?
  • Why this propitiation is the only perfect propitiation?
  • What are the major outcomes of this perfect propitiation?

Propitiation

  • What is Propitiation?
    • Propitiation means
      • to appease god by a sacrifice,
      • the sacrifice was offered to buy off the anger of the god,
  • Is it equivalent to bribing God?
    • Almost in many religion people appeasing God by bribe, sacrifice or gift of any kind. But in Christianity and Judaism this is not true. We cannot appease God by a bribe, sacrifice or gift of any kind.
      • Heb 10:8 - Previously saying, "Sacrifice and offering, burnt offerings, and offerings for sin You did not desire, nor had pleasure in them" (which are offered according to the law),
      • Psalm 40:6 - Sacrifice and offering You did not desire; My ears You have opened. Burnt offering and sin offering You did not require.
  • What is Propitiation really means as per the Holy Bible?
    • Why we need to sacrifice?
      • Wages of Sin is death:
        • Genesis 2:16,17 - 16 And the Lord God commanded the man, saying, "Of every tree of the garden you may freely eat; 17 but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat of it you shall surely die."
        • Romans 6:23- For the wages of sin is death, but the gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord.
      • When we sin God has to punish us by killing us as a sacrifice.
    • Did God punish Adam and Eve when they had sinned first?
      • Yes, God did punish them by cursing them:
        • Gen 3:15 - 14 So the Lord God said to the serpent: "Because you have done this, You are cursed more than all cattle, And more than every beast of the field; On your belly you shall go, And you shall eat dust All the days of your life. 15 And I will put enmity Between you and the woman, And between your seed and her Seed; He shall bruise your head, And you shall bruise His heel." 16 To the woman He said: "I will greatly multiply your sorrow and your conception; In pain you shall bring forth children; Your desire shall be for your husband, And he shall rule over you." 17 Then to Adam He said, "Because you have heeded the voice of your wife, and have eaten from the tree of which I commanded you, saying, 'You shall not eat of it': "Cursed is the ground for your sake; In toil you shall eat of it All the days of your life.
      • But God did not kill them as a punishment as He said in Gen 2:17b - "for in the day that you eat of it you shall surely die."
    • Why God didn't punish or kill Adam and Eve as a sacrifice when they had sinned first ?
      • God out of His Love, grace and mercy He didn't punish/kill them as he said but in their place God killed an animal on their behalf and provided that animal's skin as a tunic:
        • Gen 3:21- Also for Adam and his wife the Lord God made tunics of skin, and clothed them.
      • This is how the sacrifice system started.
    • Propitiation means not bribing God but
      • Substitute sacrifice, - Instead of sacrificing us we substitute by animal, bird, grain, ...
      • Sacrifice made to cover or take away our sin
      • Sacrifice of Atonement (NIV) - atonement means covering.
      • Atonement/covering sacrifice
      • “expiated” (removed) man’s guilt
      • Sacrifice made to satisfy all the requirements of God's holy Law, so that we can approach God freely.
      • In human terms, "propitiation" means appeasing someone who is angry, usually by a gift. But in the Bible "Propitiation" means sacrifice that covers or takes away our sin and provide free access to God.
      • The Greek word for propitiation hilasterion is also used in the Septuagint for the mercy seat, the lid that covered the ark of the covenant, upon which sacrificial blood was sprinkled as an atonement for sin. This word used only in two places in the Bible:
        1. In Romans 3:25 and
        2. It is translated as mercy seat in Hebrews 9:5
  • How God instituted propitiation in Old Testament time?
    • The best illustration of this truth is the Jewish Day of Atonement described in Leviticus 16. Two goats were presented at the altar.
      1. One of them was chosen for a sacrifice,
      2. Other goat was left in wilderness.
    • Leviticus 16:5-22 - 1 Now the Lord spoke to Moses after the death of the two sons of Aaron, when they offered profane fire before the Lord, and died; 2 and the Lord said to Moses: "Tell Aaron your brother not to come at just any time into the Holy Place inside the veil, before the mercy seat which is on the ark, lest he die; for I will appear in the cloud above the mercy seat. 3 Thus Aaron shall come into the Holy Place: with the blood of a young bull as a sin offering, and of a ram as a burnt offering. 4 He shall put the holy linen tunic and the linen trousers on his body; he shall be girded with a linen sash, and with the linen turban he shall be attired. These are holy garments. Therefore he shall wash his body in water, and put them on. 5 And he shall take from the congregation of the children of Israel two kids of the goats as a sin offering, and one ram as a burnt offering. 6 "Aaron shall offer the bull as a sin offering, which is for himself, and make atonement for himself and for his house. 7 He shall take the two goats and present them before the Lord at the door of the tabernacle of meeting. 8 Then Aaron shall cast lots for the two goats: one lot for the Lord and the other lot for the scapegoat. 9 And Aaron shall bring the goat on which the Lord's lot fell, and offer it as a sin offering. 10 But the goat on which the lot fell to be the scapegoat shall be presented alive before the Lord, to make atonement upon it, and to let it go as the scapegoat into the wilderness. 11 "And Aaron shall bring the bull of the sin offering, which is for himself, and make atonement for himself and for his house, and shall kill the bull as the sin offering which is for himself. 12 Then he shall take a censer full of burning coals of fire from the altar before the Lord, with his hands full of sweet incense beaten fine, and bring it inside the veil. 13 And he shall put the incense on the fire before the Lord, that the cloud of incense may cover the mercy seat that is on the Testimony, lest he die. 14 He shall take some of the blood of the bull and sprinkle it with his finger on the mercy seat on the east side; and before the mercy seat he shall sprinkle some of the blood with his finger seven times. 15 "Then he shall kill the goat of the sin offering, which is for the people, bring its blood inside the veil, do with that blood as he did with the blood of the bull, and sprinkle it on the mercy seat and before the mercy seat. 16 So he shall make atonement for the Holy Place, because of the uncleanness of the children of Israel, and because of their transgressions, for all their sins; and so he shall do for the tabernacle of meeting which remains among them in the midst of their uncleanness. 17 There shall be no man in the tabernacle of meeting when he goes in to make atonement in the Holy Place, until he comes out, that he may make atonement for himself, for his household, and for all the assembly of Israel. 18 And he shall go out to the altar that is before the Lord, and make atonement for it, and shall take some of the blood of the bull and some of the blood of the goat, and put it on the horns of the altar all around. 19 Then he shall sprinkle some of the blood on it with his finger seven times, cleanse it, and consecrate it from the uncleanness of the children of Israel. 20 "And when he has made an end of atoning for the Holy Place, the tabernacle of meeting, and the altar, he shall bring the live goat. 21 Aaron shall lay both his hands on the head of the live goat, confess over it all the iniquities of the children of Israel, and all their transgressions, concerning all their sins, putting them on the head of the goat, and shall send it away into the wilderness by the hand of a suitable man. 22 The goat shall bear on itself all their iniquities to an uninhabited land; and he shall release the goat in the wilderness.
    • Why God asked them to sacrifice the first goat?
      • Leviticus 16:15 - "Then he shall kill the goat of the sin offering, which is for the people, bring its blood inside the veil, do with that blood as he did with the blood of the bull, and sprinkle it on the mercy seat and before the mercy seat.
      • (WW) One of them was chosen for a sacrifice. The goat was slain and its blood taken into the holy of holies and sprinkled on the mercy seat, that golden cover on the ark of the covenant. This sprinkled blood covered the two tablets of the Law inside the ark. The shed blood met (temporarily) the righteous demands of the holy God.
    • Why God asked them to leave another goat in wilderness?
      • Leviticus 16:21,22 - 21 Aaron shall lay both his hands on the head of the live goat, confess over it all the iniquities of the children of Israel, and all their transgressions, concerning all their sins, putting them on the head of the goat, and shall send it away into the wilderness by the hand of a suitable man. 22The goat shall bear on itself all their iniquities to an uninhabited land; and he shall release the goat in the wilderness.
      • (WW) The priest then put his hands on the head of the other goat and confessed the sins of the people. Then the goat was taken out into the wilderness and set free to symbolize the carrying away of sins.
        • Ps. 103:12 - "As far as the east is from the west, so far hath He removed our transgressions from us".
  • Does this propitiation in Old Testament time takes away their sins?
    • How frequent this propitiation in Old Testament time repeated?
      • It is repeated once a year and it is called the Day of Atonement or in Hebrew "Yom Kippur".
      • One day each year the High Priest would draw aside the Veil and enter the Holy of Holies to make atonement (Heb. Kafar) and cover the nations sins from the judgment of God and receive forgiveness. It took place on the 10th day of the 7th month, Tishri. By our calendar that would be around the end of September or early October.
      • Leviticus 16:29 - 29 "This shall be a statute forever for you: In the seventh month, on the tenth day of the month, you shall afflict your souls, and do no work at all, whether a native of your own country or a stranger who dwells among you. 30 For on that day the priest shall make atonement for you, to cleanse you, that you may be clean from all your sins before the Lord.
    • No, it does not takes away their sins but it covers their sin temporarily because the sacrifice is not perfect.
      • Heb 10:4 - For it is not possible that the blood of bulls and goats could take away sins.
      • Heb 10:11 - And every priest stands ministering daily and offering repeatedly the same sacrifices, which can never take away sins.
  • Why God instituted propitiation in Old Testament time?
    • Propitiation or Atonement sacrifice is the shadow (not real) of "the perfect Propitiation" that God prepared for all of us before the foundation of the earth.
    • Who is that perfect propitiation?
      • Jesus Christ is the perfect propitiation (the atonement sacrifice) and His blood is the perfect atonement sacrifice that takes away our sin.
        • John 1:29 - 29 The next day John saw Jesus coming toward him, and said, "Behold! The Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world!
        • Heb 9:7-14 - 7 But into the second part the high priest went alone once a year, not without blood, which he offered for himself and for the people's sins committed in ignorance; 8 the Holy Spirit indicating this, that the way into the Holiest of All was not yet made manifest while the first tabernacle was still standing. 9 It was symbolic for the present time in which both gifts and sacrifices are offered which cannot make him who performed the service perfect in regard to the conscience--10 concerned only with foods and drinks, various washings, and fleshly ordinances imposed until the time of reformation. 11 But Christ came as High Priest of the good things to come, with the greater and more perfect tabernacle not made with hands, that is, not of this creation.12 Not with the blood of goats and calves, but with His own blood He entered the Most Holy Place once for all, having obtained eternal redemption.
      • (DG) The Greek word for propitiation (hilasterion) is also used in the Septuagint for the mercy seat, the lid that covered the ark of the covenant, upon which sacrificial blood was sprinkled as an atonement for sin. While it might be said that this passage is saying “Jesus is our mercy seat,” it probably has more the straightforward idea of propitiation - a substitute sacrifice.
        • At the same time, the “mercy seat” idea should not be neglected as an illustration of that propitiation. Inside the ark of the covenant were the evidence of man’s great sin: the tablets of law; the manna received ungratefully; the budded rod of Aaron, showing man’s rejection of God’s leadership. Up over the ark of the covenant were the symbols of the holy presence of the enthroned God in the beautiful gold cherubim. In between the two stood the mercy seat, and as sacrificial blood was sprinkled on the mercy seat on the Day of Atonement (Leviticus 16), God’s wrath was averted because a substitute had been slain on behalf of sinners coming by faith. We really can say that Jesus is our “mercy seat,” standing between guilty sinners and the holiness of God.     
    • How frequent this perfect propitiation repeated?
      • Jesus Christ offered Himself as a sacrifice on our behalf and fulfilled all the requirements of the law once for all. So, Jesus do not have to die again.
        • Matt 5:17 - "Do not think that I came to destroy the Law or the Prophets. I did not come to destroy but to fulfill.
        • Romans 10:4 - For Christ is the end of the law for righteousness to everyone who believes.
        • Heb 10:10-12,14-18 - 10 By that will we have been sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all. 11 And every priest stands ministering daily and offering repeatedly the same sacrifices, which can never take away sins. 12 But this Man, after He had offered one sacrifice for sins forever, sat down at the right hand of God, 13 from that time waiting till His enemies are made His footstool. 14 For by one offering He has perfected forever those who are being sanctified. 15 But the Holy Spirit also witnesses to us; for after He had said before, 16 "This is the covenant that I will make with them after those days, says the Lord: I will put My laws into their hearts, and in their minds I will write them," 17 then He adds, "Their sins and their lawless deeds I will remember no more." 18Now where there is remission of these, there is no longer an offering for sin.
      • (WW) In the Old Testament period, the blood of animals could never take away sin; it could only cover it until the time when Jesus would come and purchase a finished salvation.
    • Who provides this perfect propitiation?
      • God provided this perfect propitiation out of His Love:
        • John 3:16,18 - 16 For God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him should not perish but have everlasting life. 17 For God did not send His Son into the world to condemn the world, but that the world through Him might be saved. 18 He who believes in Him is not condemned; but he who does not believe is condemned already, because he has not believed in the name of the only begotten Son of God.
      • We are not appeasing God by our gifts but God reconciled with us by becoming sin for us and died on the cross:
        • 2 Cor 5:21 - For He made Him who knew no sin to be sin for us, that we might become the righteousness of God in Him.
    • Does God prepared this perfect propitiation before the foundation of this world?
      • Yes, God did prepare this perfect sacrifice Jesus Christ before the foundation of this world.
      • Rev 13:8 - All who dwell on the earth will worship him (the Antichrist), whose names have not been written in the Book of Life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world.
      • 1 Peter 1:20 - 18 knowing that you were not redeemed with corruptible things, like silver or gold, from your aimless conduct received by tradition from your fathers, 19 but with the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and without spot. 20 He indeed was foreordained before the foundation of the world, but was manifest in these last times for you 21 who through Him believe in God, who raised Him from the dead and gave Him glory, so that your faith and hope are in God.
      • Luke 2:25-35 -25 And behold, there was a man in Jerusalem whose name was Simeon, and this man was just and devout, waiting for the Consolation of Israel, and the Holy Spirit was upon him. 26 And it had been revealed to him by the Holy Spirit that he would not see death before he had seen the Lord's Christ. 27 So he came by the Spirit into the temple. And when the parents brought in the Child Jesus, to do for Him according to the custom of the law, 28 he took Him up in his arms and blessed God and said: 29 "Lord, now You are letting Your servant depart in peace, According to Your word; 30 For my eyes have seen Your salvation 31 Which You have prepared before the face of all peoples, 32 A light to bring revelation to the Gentiles, And the glory of Your people Israel." 33 And Joseph and His mother marveled at those things which were spoken of Him. 34 Then Simeon blessed them, and said to Mary His mother, "Behold, this Child is destined for the fall and rising of many in Israel, and for a sign which will be spoken against 35 (yes, a sword will pierce through your own soul also), that the thoughts of many hearts may be revealed."
      • Luke 2:36-38 - 36 Now there was one, Anna, a prophetess, the daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Asher. She was of a great age, and had lived with a husband seven years from her virginity; 37 and this woman was a widow of about eighty-four years, who did not depart from the temple, but served God with fastings and prayers night and day. 38 And coming in that instant she gave thanks to the Lord, and spoke of Him to all those who looked for redemption in Jerusalem.
    • When God first revealed this perfect propitiation to humanity?
      • Gen 3:15 - 14 So the Lord God said to the serpent: "Because you have done this, You are cursed more than all cattle, And more than every beast of the field; On your belly you shall go, And you shall eat dust All the days of your life. 15 And I will put enmity Between you and the woman, And between your seed and her Seed; He shall bruise your head, And you shall bruise His heel."
  • Why this propitiation is the only perfect propitiation?
    1. Jesus is sinless:
      • Hebrew 4:15 - For we do not have a High Priest who cannot sympathize with our weaknesses, but was in all points tempted as we are, yet without sin.
      • 1 Peter 2:22 - 21 For to this you were called, because Christ also suffered for us, leaving us an example, that you should follow His steps: 22 "Who committed no sin, Nor was deceit found in His mouth";
      • 1 John 3:5 - And you know that He was manifested to take away our sins, and in Him there is no sin
    2. Jehovah is our Righteousness (Jehovah-Tsidkenu).
      • Jeremiah 23:5-6 - 5 "Behold, the days are coming," says the Lord, "That I will raise to David a Branch of righteousness; A King shall reign and prosper, And execute judgment and righteousness in the earth. 6 In His days Judah will be saved, And Israel will dwell safely; Now this is His name by which He will be called: THE LORD OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS (in Hebrew Jehovah-Tsidkenu).
    3. Jesus bore all our sins/iniquities on the cross:
      • 2 Cor 5:21 - For He made Him who knew no sin to be sin for us, that we might become the righteousness of God in Him.
      • Is 53:11,12 - 11 He shall see the labor of His soul, and be satisfied. By His knowledge My righteous Servant shall justify many, For He shall bear their iniquities. 12 Therefore I will divide Him a portion with the great, And He shall divide the spoil with the strong, Because He poured out His soul unto death, And He was numbered with the transgressors, And He bore the sin of many, And made intercession for the transgressors.
      • Mat 27:46 And about the ninth hour Jesus cried out with a loud voice, saying, "Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani?" that is, "My God, My God, why have You forsaken Me?"
    4. Jesus Christ is the first one to resurrect:
      • Col 1:18- And He is the head of the body, the church, who is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead, that in all things He may have the preeminence.
      • 1 Cor 15:3-5 - 3 For I delivered to you first of all that which I also received: that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures, 4 and that He was buried, and that He rose again the third day according to the Scriptures, 5 and that He was seen by Cephas, then by the twelve. 6 After that He was seen by over five hundred brethren at once, of whom the greater part remain to the present, but some have fallen asleep.7 After that He was seen by James, then by all the apostles. 8 Then last of all He was seen by me also, as by one born out of due time.
    5. The Lamb of God Jesus Christ who takes away sin.
      • John 1:29 - 29 The next day John saw Jesus coming toward him, and said, "Behold! The Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world!
    6. Jesus is the propitiation for the whole world:
      • 1 John 2:1–2 - 1 My little children, these things I write to you, so that you may not sin. And if anyone sins, we have an Advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous. 2 And He Himself is the propitiation for our sins, and not for ours only but also for the whole world.
    7. For this reason Jesus claimed that He is the only way to the Father God:
      • John 14:6- Jesus said to him, "I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through Me.
  • What are the major outcomes of this perfect propitiation?
    • Redeemed/bought us by His blood:
      • 1 Corinthians 6:20 - 19 Or do you not know that your body is the temple of the Holy Spirit who is in you, whom you have from God, and you are not your own? 20 For you were bought at a price; therefore glorify God in your body and in your spirit, which are God's.
    • God Cleans us by His blood:
      • 1 John 1:9 - 9 If we confess our sins, He is faithful and just to forgive us our sins and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness. 10 If we say that we have not sinned, we make Him a liar, and His word is not in us.
      • John 1:29 - 29 The next day John saw Jesus coming toward him, and said, "Behold! The Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world!
    • God removes all our guilt:
      • Ps. 103:12 - "As far as the east is from the west, so far hath He removed our transgressions from us".
    • God will not remember all our sins:
      • Heb 10:17 - 16 "This is the covenant that I will make with them after those days, says the Lord: I will put My laws into their hearts, and in their minds I will write them," 17 then He adds, "Their sins and their lawless deeds I will remember no more." 18 Now where there is remission of these, there is no longer an offering for sin.
    • Free Access to God has been established:
      • Mat 27:50–51 - 50 And Jesus cried out again with a loud voice, and yielded up His spirit. 51 Then, behold, the veil of the temple was torn in two from top to bottom; and the earth quaked, and the rocks were split,
      • Heb 4:16- Let us therefore come boldly to the throne of grace, that we may obtain mercy and find grace to help in time of need.
      • Heb 10:19 – 22 19 Therefore, brethren, having boldness to enter the Holiest by the blood of Jesus, 20 by a new and living way which He consecrated for us, through the veil, that is, His flesh, 21 and having a High Priest over the house of God, 22 let us draw near with a true heart in full assurance of faith, having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience and our bodies washed with pure water.
      • Rev 11:19- Then the temple of God was opened in heaven, and the ark of His covenant was seen in His temple. And there were lightnings, noises, thunderings, an earthquake, and great hail.
    • Jesus Christ breaks the sting/pain of the death through His resurrection:
    • Only through Jesus death (this perfect propitiation) He Justifies us.
    • Gives life to the believers through Jesus Christ resurrection
    • Provides access to Heaven.
    • ...
  • Summary:
    • Jesus is the atonement sacrifice or perfect sacrifice who takes away our sins.
    • Day of Atonement sacrifice is the shadow of Jesus’s Death. So the OT believers sacrificed animals repeatedly looking forward to this perfect sacrifice Jesus Christ.
    • OT believers looked forward to Calvary we look back to it.
  • Application:
  • Those who believe in Jesus Christ or put their faith in Jesus Christ
    1. God bought for the price and lives within us, so flee from sin:
      • 1 Corinthians 6:20 - 18 Flee sexual immorality. Every sin that a man does is outside the body, but he who commits sexual immorality sins against his own body. 19 Or do you not know that your body is the temple of the Holy Spirit who is in you, whom you have from God, and you are not your own? 20 For you were bought at a price; therefore glorify God in your body and in your spirit, which are God's.
    2. Died to their sins and live for God:
      • Romans 6:11- Likewise you also, reckon yourselves to be dead indeed to sin, but alive to God in Christ Jesus our Lord.
      • Romans 6:18- And having been set free from sin, you became slaves of righteousness.
    3. God cleansed our sins and conscience from dead works, so serve our living God:
      • Heb 9:11-14 - 11 But Christ came as High Priest of the good things to come, with the greater and more perfect tabernacle not made with hands, that is, not of this creation.12 Not with the blood of goats and calves, but with His own blood He entered the Most Holy Place once for all, having obtained eternal redemption. 13 For if the blood of bulls and goats and the ashes of a heifer, sprinkling the unclean, sanctifies for the purifying of the flesh,14 how much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered Himself without spot to God, cleanse your conscience from dead works to serve the living God?
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